Incidence rates for cerebrovascular disease reported by community-based and hospital-based studies during the past 15 years are analysed. The range of variation between area is wide, with Japan and Finland experiencing the highest age-adjusted rates. Of 16 studies reporting incidence rates by sex, 15 showed a male excess, and nine of these were significant when the incidence rate was age-adjusted. Overall, the excess is about 30% for both community-bases and hospital-based studies. For cerebral infarction the excess is about 45%. Intracerebral haemorrhage shows little difference between the two sexes and subarachnoid haemorrhage shows a male deficit of about 50%. These findings are self-consistent.
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