Table 1

ROI of public health programmes overall, and stratified by level and specialism

Median ROIROI rangeNumber of ROI studiesMedian CBRCBR rangeNumber of CBR studies
Overall 14.3 –21.3 to 22134 8.3 0.7 to 29.423
Local level 4.1 0.9 to 19.318 10.3 0.9 to 23.611
National level 27.2 –21.3 to 22117 17 1.2 to 167.10
Specialism
Health protection 34.2 0.7 to 2218 41.8 1.1 to 16710
Legislation 46.5 38 to 552 5.8 3 to 8.62
Health promotion 2.2 0.7 to 6.212 14.4 2 to 29.43
Healthcare public health 5.1 1.1 to 19.36None reportedNone reportedNone reported
Wider determinants 5.6 1.1 to 10.86 7.1 0.7 to 23.66
  • CBR, cost-benefit ratio; ROI, return on investment.