Table 2

Return on investment of local public health programmes: specific studies

ReferenceInterventionPopulationBenefit-cost ratioReturn on investmentCost perspectiveDiscount rateTime horizonStudy quality
Andresen et al 31 Supervised injection facilitiesIDU population of Vancouver, Canada5.12Medical and societal3%Lifetime++
Arrieta et al 18 Home blood pressure monitoring for hypertension diagnosis and treatment16 375 participants, USA$7.50–$19.35Insurer3%10 years++
Baker et al 44 Workplace obesity management890 employees, USA$1–$1.17MedicalNone1 year
Beard et al 41 Community-based falls prevention2000 cases and 1600 matched controls, Australia20.6Medical and societal8%18 months++
Collins42 Smoking cessationPopulation of Wirral, UK£1.77Medical3.5%20 years++
Dopp et al 57 Multisystematic therapy with serious juvenile offenders and their siblings305 participants, USA5.04Medical and societal3%25 years++
Goetzel et al 45 Workplace health risk management programme for small businesses2458 employees, USA$2.03Medical and productivityNo1 year
Guo et al 59 Improved walking and cycling infrastructure4674 participants, USA1.87Medical3%10 years++
Kleitz et al 21 Multisystematic therapy with serious juvenile offenders176 participants, USA9.51–23.59Medical and societal3%13.7 years++
Kuehl et al 46 Workplace health promotion for fire fighters1369 fire fighters, USA$4.61Medical and insurerNone7 years
Long et al 47 Health promotion programme for hospital staff4402 hospital staff, USA$2.87EmployerNone1–4 years+
Moore et al 52 Medication management for high-risk groups4500 health plan participants, USA$2InsurerNone1 year
Medivil et al 60 Speed cameras in urban settingsBarcelona, Spain€6.80Medical and societal3%2 years++
Nelson et al 39 Water fluoridationPopulation of Houston, Texas$1.51Societal10%10 years++
Nyman et al 22 Workplace health promotion1757 cases and 3619 matched controls, employer, USA$0.87No2 years+
Ozminkowski et al 51 Workplace health management25 931 Citibank employees$4.61Insurer4%3.2 years++
Peters et al 9 20 mph zones in LondonPopulation of London, UK0.66–2.19Societal3.5%10 years++
Reynolds et al 20 Intensive early education programme for socioeconomically deprived families (preschool programme)1539 participants, USA$10.83Medical and societal3%20 years++
Reynolds et al 20 Intensive early education programme for socioeconomically deprived families (school age programme)850 participants, USA$3.97Medical and societal3%20 years++
Reynolds et al 20 Intensive early education programme for socioeconomically deprived families (extended intervention)553 participants, USA$8.24Medical and societal3%20 years++
Richard et al 43 Tobacco cessation805 Medicaid insured tobacco users, USA$2–$2.25InsurerNone1.3 years
Rundell et al 53 Therapeutic services for alcoholism3034 Oklahoma alcohol service users, USA$1.98Medical and legal4%10 and 22 years++
Schwartz et al 48 Wellness and disease prevention programme57 940 health insurance clients, USA$2.02InsurerNone8 years
Schweinhart et al 56 Preschool education programme for socioeconomically deprived children123 preschool children, USA7.16Medical and societal3%40 years
Steinbach et al 19 20 mph zones in LondonPopulation of London, UK£1.12MedicalNone10 years
Spence et al 54 Outpatient pharmacy services for medication adherence2957 matched cases and controls, USA$5.97Medical and productivityNone1 year
Van Vonno et al 17 Heart failure disease management1360 matched cases and controls, USA$1.15InsurerNone1 year
Wang et al 61 Bike and pedestrian trails225 351 individual uses of bike and pedestrian trails over a 1 year period, USA$2.94Public healthNone10 years
Windsor et al 49 Antinatal stop smoking services994 pregnant smokers in Alabama, USA6.72–17.18MedicalNone5 years