Table 3

Associations of cannabis use latent class membership with harmful behaviours at 21 years

Unadjusted modelsAdjusted models 1Adjusted models 2Adjusted models 3Adjusted models 4
Reference classOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Nicotine dependence n=3215n=2772n=2197n=2134n=1863
Late-onset occasionalNon-user4.43 (1.82 to 10.8)3.68 (0.98 to 13.9)2.52 (0.38 to 16.9)2.58 (0.44 to 15.1)3.54 (0.70 to 17.9)
Early-onset occasionalNon-user5.78 (1.02 to 32.8)7.66 (0.78 to 74.9)13.5 (2.02 to 90.0)9.81 (1.25 to 76.6)12.1 (0.97 to 150.3)
RegularNon-user26.7 (12.3 to 57.9)60.6 (22.8 to 161.3)51.1 (14.2 to 183.3)37.1 (11.0 to 125.2)37.2 (9.53 to 144.8)
Early-onset occasionalLate-onset occasional1.30 (0.20 to 8.48)2.08 (0.15 to 28.4)5.33 (0.38 to 74.6)3.80 (0.28 to 52.2)3.41 (0.18 to 66.2)
RegularLate-onset occasional6.03 (2.30 to 15.8)16.5 (3.89 to 69.9)20.2 (2.19 to 186.7)14.4 (1.94 to 106.3)10.5 (1.42 to 77.7)
RegularEarly-onset occasional4.62 (0.72 to 29.7)7.92 (0.76 to 82.4)3.79 (0.54 to 26.71)3.78 (0.42 to 34.1)3.08 (0.24 to 40.1)
Harmful alcohol consumption n=3046n=2631n=2093n=2034n=1772
Late-onset occasionalNon-user4.26 (2.96 to 6.13)3.93 (2.65 to 5.83)3.02 (1.90 to 4.82)3.09 (1.92 to 4.97)2.59 (1.54 to 4.34)
Early-onset occasionalNon-user8.18 (3.99 to 16.8)8.53 (4.09 to 17.8)7.34 (3.33 to 16.2)7.68 (3.47 to 17.0)5.03 (2.09 to 12.1)
RegularNon-user3.45 (1.78 to 6.69)2.63 (1.23 to 5.64)2.67 (1.13 to 6.31)2.95 (1.22 to 7.11)2.61 (0.96 to 7.08)
Early-onset occasionalLate-onset occasional1.92 (0.87 to 4.24)2.17 (0.96 to 4.89)2.43 (1.00 to 5.91)2.48 (1.02 to 6.04)1.95 (0.73 to 5.19)
RegularLate-onset occasional0.81 (0.39 to 1.70)0.67 (0.29 to 1.55)0.88 (0.34 to 2.27)0.95 (0.36 to 2.49)1.01 (0.34 to 2.98)
RegularEarly-onset occasional0.42 (0.16 to 1.15)0.31 (0.11 to 0.90)0.36 (0.11 to 1.16)0.38 (0.12 to 1.24)0.52 (0.14 to 1.86)
Other Illicit drug use n=3048n=2631n=2094n=2033n=1772
Late-onset occasionalNon-user13.1 (8.79 to 19.4)13.8 (8.93 to 21.3)10.8 (6.59 to 17.7)11.3 (6.85 to 18.8)8.47 (4.99 to 14.4)
Early-onset occasionalNon-user8.26 (3.75 to 18.2)6.64 (2.59 to 17.0)3.34 (1.03 to 10.8)3.41 (1.06 to 10.92)3.21 (0.85 to 12.1)
RegularNon-user27.0 (14.2 to 51.5)28.7 (13.55 to 60.6)25.6 (8.97 to 73.1)29.1 (8.49 to 100.0)25.9 (7.13 to 94.0)
Early-onset occasionalLate-onset occasional0.63 (0.27 to 1.48)0.48 (0.18 to 1.32)0.31 (0.09 to 1.07)0.30 (0.09 to 1.03)0.38 (0.09 to 1.51)
RegularLate-onset occasional2.07 (1.02 to 4.21)2.08 (0.93 to 4.67)2.37 (0.74 to 7.53)2.57 (0.67 to 9.86)3.06 (0.77 to 12.1)
RegularEarly-onset occasional3.27 (1.17 to 9.14)4.31 (1.30 to 14.4)7.67 (1.55 to 37.9)8.55 (1.51 to 48.4)8.08 (1.26 to 51.6)
  • Rates of harmful behaviours across class were as follows: non-cannabis users (1% nicotine dependence, 8.4% harmful alcohol consumption, 13.6% other illicit drug use); late-onset occasional cannabis users (4.3% nicotine dependence, 28.0% harmful alcohol consumption, 83.1% other illicit drug use); early-onset occasional cannabis users (5.5% nicotine dependence, 42.7% harmful alcohol consumption, 83.0% other illicit drug use); regular cannabis users (21.2% nicotine dependence, 23.9% harmful alcohol consumption, 94.3% other illicit drug use).

  • Reference categories for outcomes are: nicotine dependence ‘non-smoker/low/very low dependence’; alcohol consumption ‘low risk/hazardous’; other illicit drug use ‘never used/not used in last 3 months’.

  • Confounders adjusted for: (model 1) sex; household income, housing tenure; crowding status; birth order; maternal educational attainment; (model 2) additionally adjusted for maternal substance use (smoking, alcohol consumption and cannabis use); (model 3) additionally adjusted for child conduct problems at age 11 years; (model 4) additionally adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use at age 13 years.

  • All p values <0.001.