Table 2

Factors associated with cannabis use latent class membership

CovariateLate-onset occasional OR (95% CI)Early-onset occasional OR (95% CI)Regular OR (95% CI)p Value
Sex
 Male1.00 ref<0.001
 Female0.86 (0.69 to 1.08)0.94 (0.56 to 1.58)0.32 (0.22 to 0.48)
Housing tenure
 Mortgaged/owned home1.00 ref<0.001
 Rented1.52 (1.04 to 2.23)0.87 (0.27 to 2.84)1.76 (0.98 to 3.16)
 Subsidised rented0.89 (0.54 to 1.46)1.10 (0.39 to 3.10)2.32 (1.39 to 3.87)
Sibling order
 First child1.00 ref<0.001
 Second child1.11 (0.85 to 1.43)2.00 (1.03 to 3.86)1.27 (0.85 to 1.88)
 Third child or higher1.35 (0.98 to 1.85)3.53 (1.77 to 7.01)1.24 (0.73 to 2.10)
Home overcrowding
 Up to one person per room1.00 ref0.21
 >1 person per room2.16 (1.29 to 3.63)0.70 (0.08 to 6.19)1.32 (0.47 to 3.71)
Maternal education
 Qualifications beyond high school1.00 ref<0.001
 High school qualifications0.54 (0.41 to 0.71)0.53 (0.29 to 0.96)0.94 (0.63 to 1.41)
 No high school qualifications0.53 (0.37 to 0.75)0.28 (0.10 to 0.81)1.02 (0.63 to 1.63)
Household income
 High (top quintile)1.00 ref<0.001
 Middle high0.64 (0.45 to 0.92)1.28 (0.65 to 2.52)0.36 (0.17 to 0.76)
 Middle0.79 (0.56 to 1.11)0.67 (0.27 to 1.62)1.14 (0.68 to 1.90)
 Middle low0.75 (0.52 to 1.08)1.02 (0.46 to 2.23)1.08 (0.63 to 1.86)
 Low (bottom quintile)0.77 (0.52 to 1.15)0.44 (0.13 to 1.54)1.08 (0.61 to 1.94)
Maternal alcohol use when child aged 12
 <14 units per week1.00 ref0.003
 14+ units per week1.93 (1.49 to 2.49)2.57 (1.47 to 4.52)1.59 (1.05 to 2.40)
Maternal alcohol binge when child aged 12
 No1.00 ref<0.001
 Yes1.58 (1.22 to 2.04)2.08 (1.18 to 3.64)1.51 (1.01 to 2.27)
Maternal smoking when child aged 12
 No1.00 ref0.001
 Yes1.30 (0.91 to 1.86)2.60 (1.42 to 4.78)2.92 (1.89 to 4.51)
Maternal cannabis use when child aged 9
 No1.00 ref<0.001
 Yes3.23 (1.87 to 5.56)9.38 (4.37 to 20.2)11.3 (6.88 to 18.7)
Child smoking at 13 years
 No1.00 ref<0.001
 Yes2.15 (1.39 to 3.33)15.2 (8.69 to 26.5)10.5 (6.96 to 16.0)
Child drinking alcohol at 13 years
 No1.00 ref<0.001
 Less than weekly2.43 (1.75 to 3.37)7.89 (3.44 to 18.1)1.77 (0.90 to 3.46)
 Weekly2.30 (1.47 to 3.60)25.0 (11.9 to 52.4)7.49 (4.72 to 11.9)
Child conduct problems at 11 years
 Low1.00 ref<0.001
 Medium1.40 (1.06 to 1.84)1.43 (0.75 to 2.73)2.12 (1.37 to 3.28)
 High1.39 (0.80 to 2.41)3.61 (1.61 to 8.12)5.60 (3.30 to 9.50)
  • Estimates shown are multinomial ORs estimated using all available data for each covariate and ‘Non-user’ as the reference category for the cannabis use outcome. Omnibus p values are from Wald tests examining the overall association between each risk factor and cannabis use latent class membership.

  • Alcohol binge defined as 4+ units of alcohol on one occasion. One unit of alcohol defined as 0.8 g ethanol.