Table 1

ROI of public health programmes overall, and stratified by level and specialism

Median ROIROI rangeNumber of ROI studiesMedian CBRCBR rangeNumber of CBR studies
Overall14.3–21.3 to 221348.30.7 to 29.423
Local level4.10.9 to 19.31810.30.9 to 23.611
National level27.2–21.3 to 22117171.2 to 167.10
Specialism
Health protection34.20.7 to 221841.81.1 to 16710
Legislation46.538 to 5525.83 to 8.62
Health promotion2.20.7 to 6.21214.42 to 29.43
Healthcare public health5.11.1 to 19.36None reportedNone reportedNone reported
Wider determinants5.61.1 to 10.867.10.7 to 23.66
  • CBR, cost-benefit ratio; ROI, return on investment.