Table 1

Prevalence of family and mothers’ employment trajectories and covariates, total weighted % (N) and % (N) with socioemotional problem behaviour

% (N) Total% (N) Problem behaviour
Family employment trajectories
 Continuous employment74.0 (7936)9.3 (688)
 A single transition into employment7.5 (774)22.4 (154)
 Multiple transitions, concluding in employment4.5 (429)20.2 (81)
 Multiple transitions, concluding in non-employment2.5 (255)27.8 (69)
 A single transition into non-employment5.0 (495)25.3 (124)
 Continuous non-employment6.4 (647)32.2 (179)
p<0.001
Mothers’ employment trajectories
 Continuous employment30.2 (3403)8.6 (266)
 A single transition into employment23.0 (2326)11.2 (255)
 Multiple transitions, concluding in employment10.1 (1054)10.6 (105)
 Multiple transitions, concluding in non-employment5.8 (593)18.9 (112)
 A single transition into non-employment7.3 (764)17.1 (122)
 Continuous non-employment23.7 (2477)22.9 (523)
p<0.001
Possible covariates
 Gender of child
 Boys51.2 (5390)16.8 (845)
 Girls48.8 (5227)11.1 (538)
p<0.001
Birth weight
 Normal/high birth weight (≥2500 g)94.2 (9999)13.6 (1261)
 Low birth weight (<2500 g)5.8 (607)20.5 (122)
p<0.001
Preterm birth
 Normal (≥37 weeks)93.1 (9835)13.8 (1287)
 Preterm (<37 weeks)6.9 (718)17.1 (119)
p<0.05
Mothers’ age at child's birth
 14–19 years7.5 (687)27.7 (180)
 20–29 years44.7 (4643)16.6 (713)
 30–39 years45.6 (5035)9.5 (470)
 40+years2.1 (252)7.5 (20)
p<0.001
Mothers’ ethnicity
 White89.0 (9307)13.9 (1176)
 Non-white11.0 (1285)14.8 (204)
p=0.53
Number of children in household (9 months)
 1 child42.3 (4469)14.4 (592)
 2 children36.8 (3821)12.6 (452)
 3 children14.4 (1592)15.5 (223)
 4 or more children6.5 (735)16.2 (116)
p<0.05
Lone parent household (9 months)
 Yes14.1 (1429)25.9 (341)
 No86.0 (9188)12.1 (1042)
p<0.001
Mothers’ qualifications (9 months)
 Degree17.9 (2062)5.2 (109)
 Diploma9.4 (1040)9.7 (98)
 A/AS/S Levels9.9 (1117)8.6 (96)
 O Levels/GCSEs A-C36.2 (3692)13.5 (476)
 O Levels/GCSEs D-G11.1 (1086)21.5 (220)
 Other academic qualification1.8 (201)15.0 (32)
 None of these qualifications13.8 (1411)27.3 (350)
p<0.001
Age of child at 7 year interview
 6 years 3 months to 6 years 11 months18.1 (1942)14.5 (256)
 7 years to 7 years 2 months35.5 (3771)13.6 (480)
 7 years 3 months to 7 years 5 months31.7 (3391)14.8 (465)
 7 years 6 months to 8 years 5 months14.7 (1508)12.6 (181)
p=0.31
Low household income (7 years)
 Below 60% average income25.2 (2717)24.4 (623)
 60% average income and above74.8 (7898)10.5 (760)
p<0.001
Increase in children in household (9 months–7 years)
 Yes46.5 (4901)15.2 (689)
 No53.5 (5716)12.9 (694)
p<0.01
Mothers’ psychological distress (7 years)
 Distress3.6 (352)47.7 (164)
 Not distressed96.4 (10 096)12.5 (1206)
p<0.001
Fathers’ employment (7 years)
 Father not employed6.0 (639)26.0 (157)
 Father employed74.0 (7970)10.8 (800)
 No father figure in household20.0 (2003)22.3 (426)
p<0.001
  • Missing data for covariates: gender of child 0; birth weight 1; gestation 64; mothers’ age at birth of child 0; mothers’ ethnicity 25; children in household 9 months 0; lone parent household 9 months 0; mothers’ education 8; child's age at 7 year sweep 5; low income at 7 years 2; increase in children in household 0; mothers’ psychological distress at 7 years 169; fathers’ employment at 7 years 5.