Table 3

the relation between having 10% more green space than average in one’s living environment and the prevalence of disease clusters (n = 345 143 unless stated otherwise)

ClusterPercentage of green space in 1 km radiusPercentage of green space in 3 km radius
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Cardiovascular
High blood pressure (n = 290 535)0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)
Cardiac disease0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)
Coronary heart disease (n = 255 346)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.97 (0.93 to 1.01)
Stroke, brain haemorrhage0.98 (0.95 to 1.00)0.98 (0.92 to 1.04)
Musculoskeletal
Neck and back complaints0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.99 (0.97 to 1.00)
Severe back complaints0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)1.00 (0.98 to 1.01)
Severe neck and shoulder complaints0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)1.00 (0.98 to 1.01)
Severe elbow, wrist and hand complaints0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)
Osteoarthritis (n = 255 346)0.97 (0.93 to 1.01)0.97 (0.92 to 1.03)
Arthritis (n = 255 346)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)
Mental
Depression0.96 (0.95 to 0.98)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)
Anxiety disorder0.95 (0.94 to 0.97)0.96 (0.93 to 0.99)
Respiratory
Upper respiratory tract infection0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)0.99 (0.97 to 1.01)
Bronchi(oli)tis/pneumonia0.99 (0.97 to 1.00)1.02 (0.99 to 1.04)
Asthma, COPD0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)
Neurological
Migraine/severe headache0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)
Vertigo0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)
Digestive
Severe intestinal complaints0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
Infectious disease of the intestinal canal0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)
Miscellaneous
MUPS0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)
Chronic eczema0.99 (0.97 to 1.00)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
Acute urinary tract infection0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)
Diabetes mellitus (n = 343 103)0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.98 (0.97 to 1.00)
Cancer1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
  • ORs are derived from multilevel logistic regression analysis, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristic and urbanicity.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MUPS, medically unexplained physical symptoms.

  • Numbers in bold signify p<0.01.