Table 3 Risk of phase 2 mental health problems by cultural identity based on clothing choices at phase 1, stratified by gender and ethnic group
Cultural identityUnadjustedAdjusted*
OR (95% CI)p ValueN R2OR (95% CI)p ValueN R2
White BritishBoysIntegrated11741150
Clothing choiceTraditional1.3 (0.5 to 3.7)0.573.21.4 (0.5 to 4.1)0.537.1
Assimilated3.1 (0.4 to 22.8)0.272.4 (0.4 to 13.5)0.32
Marginalised3 (1.2 to 7.7)0.032.9 (1.1 to 7.9)0.04
GirlsIntegrated11771167
Traditional5.6 (1.2 to 25.1)0.035.85 (0.9 to 27.2)0.0711.7
Assimilated11.7 (1.9 to 70.7)0.0079.8 (1.4 to 64.8)0.02
Marginalised3.9 (0.98 to 15.5)0.054 (0.9 to 18.5)0.08
BangladeshiBoysIntegrated12391213
Clothing choiceTraditional0.6 (0.1 to 2.5)0.453.10.4 (0.1 to 1.8)0.249.4
Assimilated0.3 (0.08 to 1)0.050.3 (0.1 to 1)0.04
Marginalised1.3 (0.5 to 3.5)0.591.2 (0.4 to 3.8)0.80
GirlsIntegrated12151198
Traditional0.1 (0.02 to 0.7)0.0211.10.08 (0.1 to 0.7)0.0226.8
Assimilated2.7 (1 to 6.8)0.041.2 (0.3 to 5.6)0.82
Marginalised0.6 (0.3 to 1.4)0.270.6 (0.3 to 1.5)0.27
  • OR, Odds ratio.

  • *Adjustment for baseline characteristics: age, year group, eligibility for free school meals, car ownership, number of rooms in house, and mental health problems at baseline (strengths and difficulties questionnaire case or not).