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Iodine intake in a population of pregnant women. INMA mother and child cohort study, Spain
  1. Mario Murcia1,*,
  2. Marisa Rebagliato2,
  3. Mercedes Espada3,
  4. Jesus Vioque4,
  5. Loreto Santa Marina5,
  6. Mar Alvarez6,
  7. Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa1,
  8. Gemma Leon4,
  9. Camen Iniguez1,
  10. Mikel Basterrechea5,
  11. Monica Guxens6,
  12. Aitana Lertxundi5,
  13. Alfredo Perales7,
  14. Ferran Ballester1,
  15. Jordi Sunyer6
  1. 1 Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Conselleria de Sanidad, Avda Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain;
  2. 2 Rey Juan Carlos University, Avenida de Atenas s/n, 28922 Alcorcon - Madrid, Spain;
  3. 3 Clinical Chemistry Unity, Public Health Laboratory of Bilbao, Maria Diaz de Haro 58, 48010 Bilbao, Spain;
  4. 4 Department of Public Health, Miguel Hernandez University, Ctra. N-332, Km87, 03550 San Juan Alicante, Spain;
  5. 5 Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian, Spain;
  6. 6 Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain;
  7. 7 La Fe University Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain
  1. Correspondence to: Mario Murcia, Area de Ambiente y Salud, Centro Superior de Investigacion en Salud Publica, Avda Catalunya, 21, Valencia, 46020, Spain; murcia_mar{at}gva.es

Abstract

Background: Monitoring iodine status during pregnancy is essential to prevent iodine related disorders. The objectives of this study are to estimate iodine intake and excretion, to assess their association, and to evaluate the compliance of the recommendations in a multicentre cohort of pregnant women.

Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data on maternal iodine nutritional status compiled between weeks 8 and 22 of gestation in three Spanish areas (Valencia, Gipuzkoa and Sabadell). Information on iodine intake from diet, salt and supplements was estimated through questionnaires. Spot urine samples were analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC). We used tobit regression analysis to assess the association between iodine intake and UIC.

Results: 1522 women were included in the study. Median UIC was 134 (interquartile range (IQR): 80-218) ig/l in Valencia, 168 (IQR: 108-272) ig/l in Gipuzkoa, and 94 (IQR: 57-151) ig/l in Sabadell. 48.9% of Valencian women consumed iodine supplements, 93.3% in Gipuzkoa and 11.0% in Sabadell. Prevalence of iodised salt consumption was 50.5% in the whole sample. UIC was associated with intake of supplements, iodised salt, dietary iodine and water. UIC levels were lower than expected according to the estimated iodine intake.

Conclusion: Median UIC reflected iodine deficiency according to WHO reference levels, except in Gipuzkoa where supplements are widely consumed. It is necessary to strengthen iodised salt consumption, since it is already far from the objective proposed of coverage of 90% of households. More data would be valuable in order to assess the correspondence between iodine intake and excretion during pregnancy.

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