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Inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality: The role of behavioural, physiological and social risk factors.
  1. Alison J Beauchamp1,*,
  2. Anna Peeters1,
  3. Rory Wolfe1,
  4. Gavin Turrell2,
  5. Linton R Harriss1,
  6. Graham G Giles3,
  7. Dallas R English3,
  8. John McNeil1,
  9. Dianna Magliano4,
  10. Stephen Harrap5,
  11. Danny Liew5,
  12. David Hunt6,
  13. Andrew M Tonkin1
  1. 1 Monash University, Australia;
  2. 2 Queensland University of Technology, Australia;
  3. 3 Cancer Council Victoria, Australia;
  4. 4 International Diabetes Institute, Australia;
  5. 5 University of Melbourne, Australia;
  6. 6 Melbourne Health, Australia
  1. Correspondence to: Alison J Beauchamp, Monash University, Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Monash University,, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 3004, Australia; alison.beauchamp{at}


Background: While the relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, the role that traditional cardiovascular risk factors play in this association remains unclear. We examined the association between education attainment and CVD mortality and the extent to which behavioural, social and physiological factors explained this relationship.

Methods: Adults (n=38 355) aged 40-69 years living in Melbourne, Australia were recruited in 1990-1994. Subjects with baseline CVD risk factor data ascertained through questionnaire and physical measurement were followed for an average of 9.4 years with CVD deaths verified by review of medical records and autopsy reports.

Results: CVD mortality was higher for those with primary education only compared to those who had completed tertiary education, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.49) after adjustment for age, country of birth and gender. Those from the lowest educated group had a more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile compared to the highest educated group, and adjustment for these risk factors reduced the HR to 1.18 (95% CI 0.78-1.77). In analysis of individual risk factors, smoking and waist circumference explained most of the difference in CVD mortality between the highest and lowest education groups.

Conclusions: Most of the excess CVD mortality in lower socioeconomic groups can be explained by known risk factors, particularly smoking and overweight. While targeting cardiovascular risk factors should not divert efforts from addressing the underlying determinants of health inequalities, it is essential that known risk factors are addressed effectively among lower socioeconomic groups.

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