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Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions among Jail and Prison Inmates in the United States Compared with the General Population
  1. Ingrid A Binswanger1,
  2. Patrick M Krueger2,
  3. John F Steiner3
  1. 1 University of Colorado, Denver School of Medicine, United States;
  2. 2 University of Texas-Houston, School of Public Health, United States;
  3. 3 Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, United States
  1. * Corresponding author; email: ingrid.binswanger{at}


Background: Despite growing inmate populations in the United States, inmates are excluded from most national health surveys and little is known about whether the prevalence of chronic disease differs between inmates and the non-institutionalized population.

Methods: We used nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, and 2002-2004 National Health Interview Survey-Sample Adult Files on individuals aged 18-65. We used binary and multinomial logistic regression to compare the prevalence of self-reported chronic medical conditions among jail (n=6,582) and prison (n=14,373) inmates and non-institutionalized (n=76,597) adults after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, employment, United States as birthplace, marital status, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for nine important chronic conditions.

Results: Compared with the general population, jail and prison inmates had higher odds of hypertension (ORjail 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31; ORprison 1.17; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27), asthma (ORjail 1.41; 95% CI, 1.28-1.56; ORprison 1.34; 95% CI, 1.22-1.46), arthritis (ORjail 1.65; 95% CI, 1.47-1.84; ORprison 1.66; 95% CI, 1.54-1.80), cervical cancer (ORjail 4.16; 95% CI, 3.13-5.53; ORprison 4.82; 95% CI, 3.74-6.22), and hepatitis (ORjail 2.57; 95% CI, 2.20-3.00; ORprison 4.23; 95% CI, 3.71-4.82), but no increased odds of diabetes, angina, or myocardial infarction, and lower odds of obesity.

Conclusions: Jail and prison inmates had a higher burden of most chronic medical conditions than the general population even with adjustment for important socio-demographic differences and alcohol consumption.

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