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A glossary of policy frameworks: the many forms of ‘universalism’ and policy ‘targeting’
  1. Gemma Carey1,
  2. Brad Crammond2
  1. 1National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  2. 2Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Gemma Carey, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Cnr of Eggleston and Mills Roads, Canberra, ACT, Australia 0200. gemma.carey@anu.edu.au

Abstract

The recognition that certain characteristics (such as poverty, disadvantage or membership of marginalised social or cultural groups) can make individuals more susceptible to illness has reignited interest in how to combine universal programmes and policies with ones targeted at specific groups. However, ‘universalism’ and ‘targeting’ are used in different ways for different purposes. In this glossary, we define different types and approaches to universalism and targeting. We anticipate that greater clarity in relation to what is meant by ‘universalism’ and ‘targeting’ will lead to a more nuanced debate and practice in this area.

  • POLICY
  • SOCIAL INEQUALITIES
  • PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

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Footnotes

  • Contributors GC drafted the paper. BC provided feedback and helped refine the definitions.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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