J Epidemiol Community Health 67:299-304 doi:10.1136/jech-2012-201828
  • Research report

Smoking and intention to quit in deprived areas of Glasgow: is it related to housing improvements and neighbourhood regeneration because of improved mental health?

Open Access
  1. Carol Tannahill3
  1. 1Evaluating the Health Effects of Social Interventions, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow, UK
  2. 2Urban Studies, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  3. 3Glasgow Centre for Population Health, Glasgow, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Lyndal Bond, Evaluating the Health Effects of Social Interventions, MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow G128RZ, UK;{at}
  • Received 13 August 2012
  • Revised 24 October 2012
  • Accepted 30 October 2012
  • Published Online First 4 December 2012


Background People living in areas of multiple deprivation are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking. This study examines the effect on smoking and intention to quit smoking for those who have experienced housing improvements (HI) in deprived areas of Glasgow, UK, and investigates whether such effects can be explained by improved mental health.

Methods Quasi-experimental, 2-year longitudinal study, comparing residents’ smoking and intention to quit smoking for HI group (n=545) with non-HI group (n=517), adjusting for baseline (2006) sociodemographic factors and smoking status. SF-12 mental health scores were used to assess mental health, along with self-reported experience of, and General Practitioner (GP) consultations for, anxiety and depression in the last 12 months.

Results There was no relationship between smoking and HI, adjusting for baseline rates (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.67, p=0.918). We found an association between intention to quit and HI, which remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographics and previous intention to quit (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.16, p=0.022). We found no consistent evidence that this association was attenuated by improvement in our three mental health measures.

Conclusions Providing residents in disadvantaged areas with better housing may prompt them to consider quitting smoking. However, few people actually quit, indicating that residential improvements or changes to the physical environment may not be sufficient drivers of personal behavioural change. It would make sense to link health services to housing regeneration projects to support changes in health behaviours at a time when environmental change appears to make behavioural change more likely.

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