Microcredit participation and nutrition outcomes among women in Peru
- 1University of California Berkeley - Univeristy of California San Francisco Joint Medical Program
- 2University of California Berkeley, School of Public Health, Berkeley, California, USA
- Correspondence to Dr Rita Hamad, University of California San Francisco, 570 University Hall #1190, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA;
- Accepted 21 September 2010
- Published Online First 4 November 2010
Background Microcredit services—the awarding of small loans to individuals who are too poor to take advantage of traditional financial services—are an increasingly popular scheme for poverty alleviation. Several studies have examined the ability of microcredit programmes to influence the financial standing of borrowers, but only a few studies have examined whether the added household income improves health and nutritional outcomes among household members. This study examined the hypothesis that longer participation in microcredit services would be associated with better nutritional status in women.
Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained in February 2007 from 1593 female clients of a microcredit organisation in Peru. The primary predictor variable was length of time as a microcredit client measured in number of completed loan cycles (range 0 to 5.5 years, average loan size US$350). The outcome variables were age-adjusted body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin levels (g/dl) and food insecurity measured using the US household food security survey module. Extensive data on demographic and socioeconomic status were also collected.
Results Longer microcredit participation was associated with higher BMI (β=0.05, p=0.06), higher haemoglobin levels (β=0.07, p<0.01) and lower food insecurity (β=−0.13, p<0.01). With the inclusion of demographic and socioeconomic variables, the associations with higher haemoglobin (β=0.03, p=0.04) and lower food insecurity (β=−0.08, p<0.01) were sustained.
Conclusion This study supports the notion that microcredit participation has positive effects on the nutritional status of female clients. Further research should explore more definitive causal pathways through which these effects may occur and should examine the effects on other household members.
Funding This project was supported financially by the American Women's Hospitals Services, the Bixby Program at the University of California Berkeley (UCB), the Center for Latin American Studies at UCB, the Dean's Summer Fellowship at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), the Human Rights Center at UCB, Innovations for Poverty Action, the Interdisciplinary MPH Program at the UCB School of Public Health, the Rainer Fund and the UCSF–UCB Joint Medical Program. Study funders had no role in the study design; in collecting, analysing, or interpreting the data; in writing the report; or in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the institutional review board of the University of California Berkeley and the ethics committee of the collaborating organisation in Peru.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.