Papua and West Papua Provinces have the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia. In 2009, 94.4% HIV/AIDS cases in Papua Province were transmitted through heterosexual intercourse and HIV/AIDS cases among 15–19 years of age were in the fourth rank. A study in 2007 revealed 46.9% Junior High School students in the province had misconception on HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. Previous studies also found high-risk sexual behaviours in some Papuan cultures, including multiple sex partners and early initiation of sexual activity. These features motivated the first author to carry out the 2009. Reducing the Risk of HIV/AIDS: Intervention Trial for Young Papuans Study. 16 Senior High Schools were randomly selected and agreed to participate to either receive the HIV/AIDS and reproductive health program or act as a control group. Students of Year 11 from the selected schools (N=1082) took a pre test and 2 months later, a post-assessment test. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between knowledge of 25 HIV/AIDS and reproductive health questions on the pre test and the self-reported sexual behaviours before the intervention. We also used qualitative method to explore perspectives and experiences on sexuality. Results showed more than 50% students had limited knowledge on HIV testing, safe sex and STDs prevention. Although female students had better knowledge test and demonstrated less sexual intercourse experiences (28.5% compared to 46.5% of males), they carried a more unfavourable condition related to the impact of premarital sex, including pregnancy and unsafe abortion.
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