Introduction Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with over 150 million people. Inadequate basic social amenities and weak primary healthcare infrastructure have promoted the transmission of schistosomiasis. Presently, there is little no control programme due to absence of detail distribution of the disease that can be use in planning control programme in Nigeria.
Methods A search of articles related to schistosomiasis in Nigeria from PUBMED and local database was conducted. Search was limited to publications from 1990 to 2010. Additional reports were obtained from Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja and all the State Ministries of Health where schistosomiasis has been reported to access available information.
Results 326 relevant articles were accessed showing that schistosomiasis is endemic in 34 of 36 states and Abuja. Infection was reported from 632 locations, majorly from school children aged 5–14 years living in rural and semi urban areas. Schistosoma heamatobium infection was reported from 493 (77.5%) locations in 35 (94.6%) states. Schistosoma mansoni was reported from 125 (19.9%) locations in 18 (48.6%) states. Schistosoma intercalatum has been reported from 17 (2.7%) locations in 1 (2.7%) state. Eighteen states reported both S mansoni and S heamatobium infection. The prevalence reported from these locations ranges from (0.00-100.00 for S heamatobium), (0.00-77.5 for S mansoni) and 2.5 for S intercalatum respectively.
Conclusion Schistosomiasis disease has a nation-wide distribution. There is the need for relevant government agencies to urgently address this problem through an aggressive mass treatment campaign, improve community sanitation and health education.
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