Changes in cardiovascular mortality (CVM) among adult population of Russia in 2005–2009 were analysed in order to evaluate the efficiency of government program to reduce CVM adopted in 2008. During the period of 2005–2009, CVM of Russian population decreased by more than 25% in adult age group (20–59 years) and by more than 15% in old age group (60+ years). The highest decline was observed at the beginning of the studied period. For males, CVM declined by 11.5% from 2005 to 2006 and by 0.7% from 2007 to 2008 among adult age group and by 6.5 and 1.5% among old age group respectively. For adult females, CVM declined by 12.5% from 2005 to 2006 and increased by 0.4% from 2007 to 2008; for older females, CVM declined by 4.2 and 2.5% respectively. During the period of 2008–2009, mortality decline significantly accelerated: by 8.2 and 9.0% for adult and by 4.2 and 5.6% for old men and women respectively. For population of working age, these trends are related to mortality decline from three major causes of death: cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart disease, “other heart diseases” according to the Russian abridged classification. For older population, the highest decline is observed for cerebrovascular mortality; mortality from ischaemic heart disease slightly decreased and mortality from “other heart diseases” (determined predominantly by cardiomyopathies of alcohol origin) increased. The efficiency of this program can be substantially increased by introducing specific measures to reduce risks of ischaemic heart disease and behavioural risks related to alcoholism in particular.
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