Introduction Numerous studies have reported associations of cardiovascular risk factors with pulmonary embolism (PE), but an association of dietary factors with the risk of PE is not fully established.
Methods Using a prospective design, we studied the 14.7-year risk of PE death in relation to dietary factors, such as fish, vegetable, and fruit intakes, in 91 280 men and women aged 40–79 years in Japan. The HRs of PE death and 95% CIs were calculated by using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Results We documented 56 deaths due to PE during 14.7 years. Mean values of age were significantly higher among participants with PE than those without PE, but there were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI), hypertension, or diabetes mellitus between participants with PE and those without PE. The age- and sex-adjusted HRs of PE were lower across frequency of fish intake. Compared with the participants in the lowest fish intake group (<1 time/month), the HRs (CIs) of PE for those in the other groups were 0.31 (0.09 to 1.07) for 1–2 times/month, 0.22 (0.08 to 0.60) for 1–2 times/week, 0.19 (0.07 to 0.51) for 3–4 times/week, and 0.18 (0.07 to 0.52) for every day (p for trend <0.001). The HRs were unchanged by additional adjustment for other PE risk factors. There were no significant associations of vegetable and fruit intakes with the risk of PE death.
Conclusion A greater fish intake is associated with a lower risk of PE death among Japanese men and women.
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