Introduction Effects of dietary factors on mammographic breast density are not sufficiently consistent to elaborate preventive recommendations. This study aims to investigate the association between current diet, alcohol consumption and mammographic density.
Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in 424 women aged 21–84 years. Current Mediterranean type dietary pattern, multivitamin-multimineral-supplementation, alcohol consumption and confounders were assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in the mammography unit of University Hospital Ulm (2008). Mammographic density was evaluated according to American College of Radiology classification and summarised in low (ACR1, 2) and high (ACR3, 4). Logistic regression models were calculated adjusted for age and BMI, menopausal status and other confounders.
Results Adherence to Mediterranean type dietary pattern was inversely associated with high mammographic density, adjusted for age and BMI (per unit increase OR=0.95; CI 0.90 to 0.997, p=0.41). After stratification by menopausal status statistically significant association was present in post-menopausal women only. Current use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements was inversely associated with a high mammographic density in the adjusted model (OR=0.53; CI 0.34 to 0.83, p=0.01). Stratification by menopausal status shows similar associations, statistically significant only in post-menopausal women. Compared to non-drinkers excessive alcohol consumption (10–47 g/day) was in trend associated with higher mammographic density in the adjusted model (OR 1.47; CI 0.82 to 2.63, p=0.03).
Conclusion Adherence to Mediterranean type diet and current use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements may be associated with a lower mammographic density and may have a protective effect against breast cancer.
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