Although differences in coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors between immigrants and non-immigrants have been examined previously, the effect of acculturation on CAD risk factors in immigrants has not been fully studied less well studied. The aim of this study is to measure the level of acculturation and its association with CAD and other factors, including Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in South Asian immigrants.
Methods Using an epidemiologic cross-sectional study design, 161 South Asian immigrants between the ages of 35–65 years were randomly recruited from the US States. CAD markers and common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT) were assessed. Scaled (The Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale-SL-ASIA Scale) and non-scaled (≥10 years stay in the US) methods were used to measure the acculturation status.
Results Of the total sample, 67.7% were identified to have high acculturation. On the logistic regression model, ≥10 years stay in the US (p=0.0068), cholesterol level ≥200 mg/dl (p=0.0002), BMI ≥23 (p=0.0044) and family history of CAD (p=0.0078) were found to be independent predictors of CAD. Similar results were seen with T2D as an outcome. Those with high CAD had 2.11 (CI 1.32 to 6.68) odds of having total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl compared to those without CAD.
Conclusions Acculturation plays a major role in predisposing immigrant population to CAD. There is need for developing tools that consider acculturation as a predictor for CAD. Further studies that test tailored strategies to improve lifestyle behaviours across diverse racial/ethnic groups of immigrants are needed.
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