Introduction To determine the population-based prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), obesity and non-communicable disease risk factors in Mongolia.
Methods A national sample involving 2280 participants aged ≥40 years were examined in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009. The WHO diagnostic criteria were used to determine the prevalence of diabetes, IFG and obesity. Serum samples were tested for cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins.
Results Around 55% of the participants were enrolled from capital-Ulaanbaatar city, 30.1% were from rural soums of different geographical regions and the remaining was residing in the province centers (response rate was 93.5%). The diabetes prevalence was 8.0%, and an additional 7.4% had IFG. Prevalence of diabetes in the city, province centers and rural soums was 9.8%, 6.4% and 5.5% with the significantly highest rate in the city (p=0.012). The prevalence of diabetes among population aged over 40 years was 8.3% in men and 7.8% in women. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity was 37.4%, 26.9% (overall 64.3%) and 63.6%, respectively. Among study population the rates of abnormal triglyceride, cholesterol, and high and low density lipoprotein rates were 14.1%, 16.2%, 28.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Overall smoking and alcohol consumption rates were 24% and 60.3%, with significant higher use among men compared to women. In general, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity were different by age and residence.
Conclusions Mongolia has a rapidly rising prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Central obesity is strongly correlated with adverse health outcomes. In addition unhealthy behaviours are emerging in the adult population.
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