Introduction Thyroid cancer represents almost 1% of malignant neoplasms, corresponding to 0.5% of total deaths caused by cancer. Despite a low and progressive reduction in mortality rate, thyroid cancer is a public health issue because of its increasing incidence, as shown in various studies worldwide.
Methods This ecological study to estimate thyroid cancer incidence according to age and sex in Brazil in 2006. We employed polynomial models, which take into account age and birth cohort effects in estimate process.
Results We estimated 6066 new cases of thyroid cancer, of which 1065 among men and 5001 among women. The incidence rates were, respectively, 1.16 and 5.27 per 100 000 inhabitants. There was an increase in rates according to age for both sexes, especially from 30 years old onwards.
Conclusion The rates' magnitude and profile according to age and sex suggest the method employed yields plausible estimates.
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