Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women
- Yohei Mineharu1,2,
- Akio Koizumi1,
- Yasuhiko Wada3,
- Hiroyasu Iso4,
- Yoshiyuki Watanabe5,
- Chigusa Date6,
- Akio Yamamoto7,
- Shogo Kikuchi8,
- Yutaka Inaba9,
- Hideaki Toyoshima10,
- Takaaki Kondo10,
- Akiko Tamakoshi8,
- and the JACC study Group*
- 1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
- 2Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
- 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Osaka, Japan
- 4Department of Social and Environmental Health, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
- 5Department of Epidemiology for Community Health and Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Japan
- 6Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women's University, Nara, Japan
- 7Infectious Disease Surveillance Center; Infectious Disease Research Division, Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Kobe, Japan
- 8Department of Public Health, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan
- 9Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Jissen Women's University, Tokyo, Japan
- 10Department of Public Health/Health Information Dynamics, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan
- Correspondence to Professor Akio Koizumi, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan;
- Accepted 20 November 2009
- Published Online First 8 December 2009
Background The effects of coffee and green, black and oolong teas and caffeine intake on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality have not been well defined in Asian countries.
Methods To examine the relationship between the consumption of these beverages and risk of mortality from CVD, 76 979 individuals aged 40–79 years free of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer at entry were prospectively followed. The daily consumption of beverages was assessed by questionnaires.
Results 1362 deaths were documented from strokes and 650 deaths from CHD after 1 010 787 person-years of follow-up. Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, the multivariable HR and 95% CI for those drinking 1–6 cups/week, 1–2 cups/day and ≥3 cups/day were 0.78 (0.50 to 1.20), 0.67 (0.47 to 0.96) and 0.45 (0.17 to 0.87) for strokes among men (p=0.009 for trend). Compared with non-drinkers of green tea, the multivariable HR for those drinking 1–6 cups/week, 1–2 cups/day, 3–5 cups/day and ≥6 cups/day were 0.34 (0.06–1.75), 0.28 (0.07–1.11), 0.39 (0.18–0.85) and 0.42 (0.17–0.88) for CHD among women (p=0.038 for trend). As for oolong tea, the multivariable HR of those drinking 1–6 cups/week and ≥1 cups/day were 1.00 (0.65–1.55) and 0.39 (0.17–0.88) for total CVD among men (p=0.049 for trend). Risk reduction for total CVD across categories of caffeine intake was most prominently observed in the second highest quintile, with a 38% lower risk among men and 22% among women.
Conclusions Consumption of coffee, green tea and oolong tea and total caffeine intake was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from CVD.
↵* JACC Study Group members of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho (JACC Study) Group are listed in the appendix.
Funding Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan (nos 61010076, 62010074, 63010074, 1010068, 2151065, 3151064, 4151063, 5151069, 6279102 and 11181101).
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the ethical committees at Nagoya University and the University of Tsukuba.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.