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Three randomised control trials on male circumcision (MC) in South Africa (November 2005), and in Uganda and Kenya (December 2006), have now confirmed what a growing body of evidence has indicated for more than 15 years: MC reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by around 50%.1–3 In 1999, Halperin and Bailey4 published an article, “Male circumcision and HIV infection: 10 years and counting”. Over the preceding decade, considerable evidence had accumulated that MC reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in previously uninfected men. In the eight years since that article, additional studies have only underscored this relationship. However, no large-scale, systematic effort has yet taken up the challenge to translate this science into preventive strategies.
Are there barriers to roll out MC? MC is cost effective. Kahn et al5 estimate …
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