End-of-life decision-making in Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland: does place of death make a difference?
- Joachim Cohen1,
- Johan Bilsen1,
- Susanne Fischer3,
- Rurik Löfmark4,
- Michael Norup5,
- Agnes van der Heide6,
- Guido Miccinesi7,
- Luc Deliens2,
- on behalf of the EURELD Consortium
- 1End-of-Life Care Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
- 2VU University Medical Center, Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 3Center of Health Sciences, Zurich University of Applied Sciences Winterthur, Zurich, Switzerland
- 4Centre for Bioethics, LIME, Karolinska Institutet and Uppsala University, Stockholm, Sweden
- 5Department of Medical Philosophy and Clinical Theory, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 6Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
- 7Centre for Study and Prevention of Cancer, Florence, Italy
- Joachim Cohen, End-of-Life Care Research Group, Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels, Belgium;
- Accepted 31 January 2007
Objective: To examine differences in end-of-life decision-making in patients dying at home, in a hospital or in a care home.
Design: A death certificate study: certifying physicians from representative samples of death certificates, taken between June 2001 and February 2002, were sent questionnaires on the end-of-life decision-making preceding the patient’s death.
Setting: Four European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland (German-speaking part).
Main outcome measures: The incidence of and communication in different end-of-life decisions: physician-assisted death, alleviation of pain/symptoms with a possible life-shortening effect, and non-treatment decisions.
Results: Response rates ranged from 59% in Belgium to 69% in Switzerland. The total number of deaths studied was 12 492. Among all non-sudden deaths the incidence of several end-of-life decisions varied by place of death. Physician-assisted death occurred relatively more often at home (0.3–5.1%); non-treatment decisions generally occurred more often in hospitals (22.4–41.3%), although they were also frequently taken in care homes in Belgium (26.0%) and Switzerland (43.1%). Continuous deep sedation, in particular without the administration of food and fluids, was more likely to occur in hospitals. At home, end-of-life decisions were usually more often discussed with patients. The incidence of discussion with other caregivers was generally relatively low at home compared with in hospitals or care homes.
Conclusion: The results suggest the possibility that end-of-life decision-making is related to the care setting where people die. The study results seem to call for the development of good end-of-life care options and end-of-life communication guidelines in all settings.
Funding support: This study was supported by a grant from the Fifth Framework Program of the European Commission, Brussels, Belgium (contract QLRT-1999-30859). The Swiss part of the project was funded by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Research, Berne (contract BBW 99.0889).
Competing interests: None.