Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults
- 1Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, USA
- 2Department of Community Health and Prevention Research Center, Saint Louis University School of Public Health, USA
- 3Metro Regional Services, Portland, Oregon, USA
- Correspondence to: Dr F Li Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Boulevard, Eugene, OR 97403, USA;
- Accepted 17 December 2004
Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample.
Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment.
Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking.
Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic.
Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences.
Funding: this project was funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Aging, Grant AG17510, and in part by AG18394.
Conflicts of interest: none declared.
Ethics approval: the Institutional Review Board of Oregon Research Institute approved the research protocol, and all study participants provided informed consent before study surveys were conducted.