OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between musculoskeletal pain and smoking. DESIGN: Cross sectional, national interview survey. SETTING: All individuals in a representative sample of households in Norway in 1985. SUBJECTS: A total of 6681 persons aged 16 to 66 years old. people in institutions were not included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Gender specific and age specific prevalence rates for pain in the cervical region/upper limbs, back, and lower limbs. RESULTS: Current smoking was independently associated with musculoskeletal pain (odds ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.45, 1.97) after adjustment for gender, age, comorbidity, mental distress, lifestyle factors, and occupation related factors. The association was of similar strength regarding cervical/upper limb pain (OR 1.87; CI 1.56, 2.25) and back pain (OR 1.84; CI 1.50, 2.25) but weaker in respect of lower limb pain (OR 1.37; CI 1.10, 1.71). Musculoskeletal pain was often present in more than one site. CONCLUSION: Smoking was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain after adjustment for other relevant factors.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.