Cryptorchidism: a registry based study in Sweden on some factors of possible aetiological importance.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the epidemiological characteristics of boys with cryptorchidism. DESIGN: Cohort survey using the Swedish personal identification code and Medical Birth Registry to link cryptorchid boys with their pregnancy and delivery data. They were compared with the total population of male births during the same period. SUBJECTS: 2861 cryptorchid boys born in Sweden between 1973 and 1982 were identified. Of these 437 could not be linked with their Medical Birth Registry information for various reasons, or were excluded because they were under 1 year of age at the end of 1982, leaving 2424 cases for study. The reference population comprised all boys born in Sweden during the same period (n = 458,601). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For each study variable, the observed number of cases among boys with cryptorchidism was compared with the expected number calculated from the whole population. A significant increase in intensity ratio for cryptorchidism was found with the first birth, caesarean section, toxaemia of pregnancy, and certain congenital abnormalities (hypospadias and subluxation of the hip). It was also more common in small for dates infants. There was a seasonal variation in cryptorchidism, with increased incidence in January-March. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptorchidism may be caused by hormonal influences during pregnancy, which could be affected by utero-placental factors involving placental dysfunction or by daylight hours, through pineal activity.