Mortality ratios, life expectancy, and causes of death in patients with Turner's syndrome.
In a prospective study of 156 female patients with Turner's syndrome who had survived infancy and been followed up for an average of 17 years there were 15 deaths. The expected mortality was 3.6. Sixteen of the patients had a congenital heart anomaly and five of the deaths occurred in this group. The 10 deaths in the remaining 140 were three times as many as expected. The reduction in life expectation was 12.5 years at age 1 year, 11 years at age 20, and 10 years at age 40. Deaths were due to a broad spectrum of diseases. In the sample as a whole there were eight deaths from diseases of the circulatory system. This number is significantly greater than expected, but four were due to congenital heart disease. When patients with congenital heart disease were omitted from the sample the mortality from circulatory disorders was not significantly increased. Within the category of circulatory disorders there were three deaths from dissection of the aorta, a number which is greatly in excess of the expected. Two of these patients had no previous evidence of heart disease.