A case control study of lung cancer in Florence, Italy was performed to investigate occupational risk factors for both men and women. The case series (n = 376) comprised all incident, histologically confirmed cases of primary lung cancer occurring in a three year period. Controls (n = 892) were patients in the same hospital of similar age, sex, date of admission, and smoking status with discharge diagnoses other than lung cancer or suicide. A detailed occupational history was collected from each subject directly. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for specific occupations compared to all others. Among men, the lung cancer risk for bricklayers using firebrick and other refractory materials was elevated (adjusted odds ratio 6.5, 95% limits 2.1 and 20.9). Female hat makers, probably exposed to arsenic while making felt hats, had an elevated risk of lung cancer (6 cases versus 0 controls, p = 0.01). Risks in other occupations are discussed.
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