The epidemiology of migraine and non-migrainous headaches (NMH) was investigated in a community survey in a neighbourhood of western Jerusalem in 1969-71. Diagnoses were based on histories taken by physicians. Prevalence rates among persons aged 15 and over were 10.1% for migraine (including classical migraine, 2.1%) and 25.6% for frequent NMH (more than once a month). Both migraine and frequent NMH were more prevalent among women. Migraine showed a peak of prevalence among women aged 35-44. Both migraine and NMH were associated with negative self-appraisals of health, emotional symptoms, reports of unsatisfactory present and past life situations, and a reported tendency to 'try harder' and 'hurry more'. No significant relationships were found with blood pressure, education, region of birth, marital status, number of pregnancies, pregnancy status, oral contraceptives, menopause, cigarette smoking, diabetes, preference for a high or low pressure of activities, or the importance attached to striving for achievement. Headaches accompanied by nausea and visual aura occurred four times as often as might have been explained by a chance concurrence of these features, and the occurrence of these symptoms conformed with a Guttman scale. The findings support the concept of migraine as a specific entity, which should possibly be considered as part of a single continuum of headache and related manifestations.
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