The concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry on representative samples of tap-water collected from 48 local authority areas in South Wales. The associations between twelve trace elements and central nervous system (CNS) malformation rates for the 48 areas were examined. Significant correlations for four trace elements were observed. Of these, Al was positively correlated while for the remaining three-Ca, Ba, and Cu-negative associations were found. Regression analysis of the data suggested that the relationships between Ba and Cu with CNS malformation rates were improtant than those of Al and Ca.
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